An innovation that is disruptive allows a whole new population of consumers at the bottom of market access to a product or service that was historically only accessible to consumers with a lot of money or a lot of skill
Long tail is a phrase popularized by Chris Anderson, former editor of WIRED Magazine, in 2004. Anderson compared Long Tail to the blockbuster or hit-driven business models of media and retail companies. Long-tail sellers change the shape of demand from “blockbuster” or “superstars” to selling large numbers of unique, niche items.
Simply put, these are factors that lead to satisfaction and motivate employees to work harder. Examples might include enjoying your work, feeling recognized and career progression.
The Pygmalion effect is a psychological phenomenon wherein high expectations lead to improved performance in a given area.